Cách quản lý nhân sự hiệu quả dành cho nhà lãnh đạo

Kiến thức nhân sự   |   01.08.2016

Lãnh đạo một đội ngũ nhân viên năng suất hiệu quả với năm cách sau

Tố chất lãnh đạo hiệu quả là động cơ thúc đẩy nhóm bạn luôn tạo ra năng suất ổn định trong khi vẫn ham muốn cải thiện bản thân, cũng như trau dồi lòng trung thành giữa các đồng nghiệp, bản thân bạn và lý tưởng nhất là ở cấp độ toàn công ty. Ban đầu nghe có vẻ khó khăn, nhưng cũng không phải là không thể nếu bạn tiếp cận nó với thái độ đúng đắn và ưu tiên hàng đầu.

Trước khi trở thành một doanh nhân và một doanh nghiệp nhỏ đóng góp vào sự phát triển của Money Crashers, tôi dã từng làm việc dưới sự giám sát của một số nhà quản lý nhân sự tài năng và tận tâm. Bằng cách học tập họ, tôi đã có thể không chỉ liên tục nâng cao năng suất bộ phận của tôi, cũng như giảm mức độ thay thế nhân viên bằng cách thấm nhuần cảm hứng và khiến họ cam kết với nhiệm vụ và trách nhiệm của mình. Đây cách tôi đã làm:

1. Giao tiếp một cách thông minh.

Một số nhà quản lý đã nhầm lẫn khi tin rằng quát tháo ra lệnh và reo rắc nỗi sợ hãi trong nhân viên là điểm nổi bật của thành công trong cách quản lý. Nhưng nếu đây là chiến lược của bạn, bạn dường như chỉ thành công trong việc tạo ra một môi trường không có động lực, và đối đầu giữa các nhân viên.

Thay vào đó, bạn hãy dành thời gian để học cách giao tiếp hiệu quả với từng nhân viên. Thật vậy, một số thường tuân theo những chỉ thị kiên định, nhưng tôn trọng, trong khi những người khác phản ứng tốt hơn với giọng điệu mềm mại và thái độ trìu mến. Bằng cách điều chỉnh phong cách quản lý của bạn để mỗi nhân viên, và không nên mong đợi nhân viên của bạn phù hợp với những thay đổi của bạn.

Bất kể bạn giao tiếp như thế, nhưng điều cần phải nhất quán là bạn luôn phải thẳng thắn và trung thực. Đừng cố gắng vòng vo tam quốc hoặc lãng tránh giải thích một cách chính xác. Ví dụ là có phải dòng tiền thu chi của doanh nghiệp không được ghi nhận lại một cách chính xác? Vậy hãy giải thích vấn đề cho những người có trách nhiệm và cho họ biết bạn sẽ giao cho họ trọng trách đối với nhiệm vụ mà bạn đã chỉ ra.

2. Đảm đương trọng trách. Hay một cách đơn giản là, nếu bạn phạm phải sai lầm, thì bạn là người chịu trách nhiệm đối với nó. Đừng bị cám dỗ để vượt nhằm đổ lỗi lên nhân viên nếu đó là lỗi của bạn, vì điều này có thể làm bạn mất uy tín và niềm tin từ nhân viên của bạn.

3. Xử lý xung đột. Cho dù phải đối mặt giảm năng suất hoặc tranh chấp giữa các phòng ban trong công ty, thì hoàn toàn phụ thuộc vào bạn nhằm thiết lập những giới hạn và duy trì một môi trường làm việc ôn hòa. Nếu bạn không có đủ khả năng để trực tiếp giải quyết vấn đề, bạn hãy cân nhắc thuê một nhân viên được đào tạo đặc biệt về huấn luyện để giúp bạn vượt qua những xung đột này.

 

4.Khen ngợi và khen thưởng nhân viên. Nếu doanh thu bán hàng của công ty đạt mục tiêu hoặc vượt quá kỳ vọng trong tháng trước, bạn không nên đắm mình trong vinh quang một mình. Hãy cảm ơn tất cả những người đã góp sức vào sự thành công này. Không có gì có thể tạo động lực hơn khen ngợi và khen thưởng, và có rất nhiều cách để bạn có thể thưởng cho nhân viên của bạn mà không thâm hụt ngân sách. Ví dụ, bạn có thể đưa các nhân viên có năng suất hàng đầu tham gia các hoạt động bên ngoài voà cuối tuần, có thể là mua vé xem một sự kiện thể thao hoặc buổi hòa nhạc, hoặc thậm chí trải nghiệm du lịch qua đêm ở một thành phố khác. Xây dựng mối quan hệ như vậy có thể gặt hái những phần thưởng to lớn trong việc xây dựng động lực và lòng trung thành của nhân viên.

5. Lên tiếng đúng lúc. Nếu bạn đang vững tin xử lý mâu thuẫn nội bộ, bạn có thể sẵn sàng thoải mái thể hiện một ý kiến trái chiều về hiện trạng. Hãy thể hiện sự nhiệt tình cho những ý tưởng và quan điểm của bạn để ghi dấu ấn như là một nhà lãnh đạo và doanh nhân thành đạt, và bạn cần phải có sự tin tưởng đội ngũ nhân viên vào khả năng của bạn.

Tuy nhiên, việc cân nhắc thời điểm thích hợp để lên tiếng đòi hỏi sự khéo léo. Điều cuối cùng bạn muốn làm có thể gây nên xúc phạm hoặc chiếu cố nhân viên. Ngoài ra, hãy thành thật với chính bản thân, và tách cái tôi ra khỏi những ý tưởng mà bạn đưa ra. Nếu những đề xuất của bạn bị phớt lờ, không nên cảm thấy bị xúc phạm. Bạn sử dụng một đội ngũ chuyên gia mà bạn tin tưởng, và nếu những lời khuyên của họ chống lại những ý tưởng hay sáng kiến của bạn, điều đó có thể đem lợi ích tốt nhất tới cho bạn khi nghe theo lời khuyên của nhân viên.

Có được nhận thức về chính trị nơi công sở cũng có thể giúp bạn hiểu rằng như thế nào và khi nào thích hợp để bạn xen vào quan điểm của mình. Một cách để làm được điều này là để khuyến khích "chính sách mở ", mà theo nhân viên của bạn cảm thấy được phép lên tiếng trong các cuộc họp với bạn hoặc gửi một e-mail khi có những vấn đề nội bộ.

Với tư cách một chủ doanh nghiệp nhỏ, kinh nghiệm của tôi cho thấy rằng các đặc điểm lãnh đạo nòng cốt xuất phát từ sự liêm chính, trưởng thành và tự tin. Nếu bạn cảm thấy tốt về nhân viên của bạn, quan tâm đến quyền lợi của mình và những người khác, và có thể xem xét các tình huống một cách khách quan, bạn mong muốn phát triển một đội ngũ kết nối chặt chẻ, và từ đó có thể thúc đẩy tăng trưởng doanh nghiệp.

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    A boiler is a closed vessel where drinking water or other fluid is heated. The liquid will not always boil. (In THE UNITED STATES, the term "furnace" is generally used if the reason is not to boil the fluid.) The heated or vaporized liquid exits the boiler for use in various procedures or heating system applications,[1][2] including water heating, central heating system, boiler-based power era, food preparation, and sanitation. Materials The pressure vessel of a boiler is usually manufactured from steel (or alloy steel), or of wrought iron historically. Stainless steel, of the austenitic types especially, is not found in wetted parts of boilers credited to corrosion and stress corrosion breaking.[3] However, ferritic stainless is often found in superheater sections that won't come in contact with boiling drinking water, and electrically heated stainless shell boilers are allowed under the Western "Pressure Equipment Directive" for production of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4] [url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler[/url] In live steam models, copper or brass is often used since it is more fabricated in smaller size boilers easily. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for vapor locomotives), because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in more recent times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as metal) are used instead. For a lot of the Victorian "age of vapor", the only materials used for boilermaking was the best quality of wrought iron, with assembly by rivetting. This iron was often from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), noted for the high quality of their rolled plate and its suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice relocated towards the utilization of metal instead, which is stronger and cheaper, with welded building, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be noted, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode significantly slower than their modern-day metal counterparts, and are less vunerable to localized stress-corrosion and pitting. This makes the durability of old wrought-iron boilers significantly more advanced than those of welded metal boilers. Cast iron might be utilized for the heating vessel of local drinking water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in some countries, their purpose is to produce warm water usually, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and try to avoid boiling. The brittleness of cast iron makes it impractical for high-pressure steam boilers. Boiler Repairs East Sheen, SW14, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service [url=http://boiler-repairs-east-sheen.co.uk]More info>>>[/url] Energy The foundation of heat for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or natural gas. Electric steam boilers use level of resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is used as a heat source for generating steam also, either directly (BWR) or, generally, in specialised high temperature exchangers called "vapor generators" (PWR). High temperature recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other procedures such as gas turbine. Boiler efficiency there are two methods to measure the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method Direct method -direct approach to boiler efficiency test is more useful or even more common boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total steam circulation Hg= Enthalpy of saturated steam in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of feed drinking water in kcal/kg q= level of energy use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like family pet coke (8200 kcal/KG) indirect method -to measure the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we need a subsequent parameter like Ultimate analysis of fuel (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint) percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas flue gas temperature at outlet ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg GCV of energy in kcal/kg ash percentage in combustible fuel GCV of ash in kcal/kg Configurations Boilers can be classified into the following configurations: Pot boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" where a open fire heats a partially filled water pot from below. 18th century Haycock boilers produced and stored large amounts of very low-pressure vapor generally, often hardly above that of the atmosphere. These could burn off wood or frequently, coal. Efficiency was suprisingly low. Flued boiler with one or two large flues-an early forerunner or type of fire-tube boiler. Diagram of a fire-tube boiler Fire-tube boiler: Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume still left above to support the steam (steam space). This is the type of boiler used in almost all steam locomotives. The heat source is in the furnace or firebox that needs to be held completely surrounded by water in order to keep up the temperatures of the heating surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which can be further increased by making the gases reverse direction through a second parallel tube or a lot of money of multiple tubes (two-pass or return flue boiler); additionally the gases may be taken along the sides and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In case there is a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel stretches from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a bundle of fire pipes inside the barrel which greatly escalates the heating surface in comparison to a single pipe and further enhances heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers have a comparatively low rate of steam production usually, but high vapor storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mainly burn solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to people of the gas or liquid variety. Diagram of a water-tube boiler. Water-tube boiler: In this type, pipes filled with water are arranged in the furnace in a number of possible configurations. Usually the water pipes connect large drums, the lower ones made up of water and the upper ones vapor and drinking water; in other situations, like a mono-tube boiler, drinking water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This kind gives high steam creation rates generally, but less storage space capacity than the above. Water pipe boilers can be designed to exploit any warmth source and tend to be preferred in high-pressure applications since the high-pressure drinking water/steam is included within small diameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall structure. Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized type of water-tube boiler where tubes are close jointly and drinking water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube steam generator where the pipe is permanently filled up with water. In a flash boiler, the pipe is kept so hot that water give food to is quickly flashed into steam and superheated. Flash boilers experienced some use in automobiles in the 19th century and this use continued in to the early 20th century. . 1950s design vapor locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes both above types have been mixed in the next manner: the firebox includes an assembly of water tubes, called thermic siphons. The gases then go through a conventional firetube boiler. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed] but have fulfilled with little success in other countries. Sectional boiler. Inside a solid iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" water is included inside ensemble iron areas.[citation needed] These areas are assembled on site to generate the finished boiler. Safety See also: Boiler explosion To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Designers (ASME) develop criteria and regulation codes. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a typical providing a wide range of guidelines and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with protection, security and design standards.[5] Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction due to poorly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metallic shells can rupture, while badly welded or riveted seams could start, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized vapor. When drinking water is changed into steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original travels and volume down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres each hour. Because of this, vapor is a great way of moving energy and warmth around a site from a central boiler house to where it is needed, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising herb will suffer from scale formation and corrosion. At best, this boosts energy costs and can lead to poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter vegetation and unreliable procedure. At worst, it can result in catastrophic failing and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also squirt scalding-hot vapor and smoke from the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who weight the coal in to the fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing a huge selection of horsepower to operate factories could demolish entire structures.[6] A boiler that has a loss of give food to water and it is permitted to boil dry out can be extremely dangerous. If give food to water is sent in to the clear boiler then, the small cascade of inbound drinking water instantly boils on contact with the superheated steel shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be controlled even by basic safety vapor valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam supply lines that is larger than the make-up drinking water source could replace. The Hartford Loop was developed in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and INSURANCE PROVIDER as a strategy to help prevent this condition from happening, and thus reduce their insurance promises.[7][8] Superheated steam boiler A superheated boiler on a steam locomotive. Main article: Superheater Most boilers produce vapor to be utilized at saturation heat; that is, saturated vapor. Superheated steam boilers vaporize the water and then further warmth the vapor in a superheater. This provides steam at much higher temp, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the vapor generating flower because the higher vapor heat takes a higher flue gas exhaust temperatures.[citation needed] There are many ways to circumvent this issue, typically by giving an economizer that heats the feed drinking water, a combustion air heating unit in the hot flue gas exhaust route, or both. There are advantages to superheated steam that may, and often will, increase overall efficiency of both vapor generation and its own utilization: gains in input heat range to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler complication and expense. There can also be useful restrictions in using moist steam, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades. Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any operational system component fails and allows steam to flee, the ruthless and temperature can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will at first be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak clearly indicates its presence. Superheater operation is similar to that of the coils on an fresh air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas path in the boiler furnace. The heat range in this field is between 1 typically,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are glowing type; that is, they absorb high temperature by radiation. Others are convection type, absorbing temperature from a liquid. Some are a mixture of both types. Through either method, the extreme high temperature in the flue gas route will also high temperature the superheater vapor piping and the vapor within. While the temperatures of the steam in the superheater increases, the pressure of the steam does not and the pressure remains the same as that of the boiler.[9] Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to prevent damage to the turbine blading and associated piping. Supercritical steam generator Boiler for a power vegetable. Main article: Supercritical steam generator Supercritical steam generators are used for the production of electric power frequently. They operate at supercritical pressure. As opposed to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical vapor generator operates at such a higher pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases to occur; the fluid is liquid nor gas but a super-critical fluid neither. There is no era of steam bubbles within water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point of which steam bubbles can form. As the liquid expands through the turbine levels, its thermodynamic state drops below the critical point as it can work turning the turbine which turns the electrical generator from which power is ultimately extracted. The fluid at that time may be a mix of steam and liquid droplets as it passes in to the condenser. This leads to slightly less fuel use and therefore less greenhouse gas creation. The term "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure steam generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this product. Boiler Repairs East Sheen, SW14, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service [url=http://boiler-repairs-east-sheen.co.uk]More info!..[/url] Accessories Boiler fittings and accessories Pressuretrols to regulate the vapor pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have two or three 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a protection by setting the upper limit of vapor pressure, the working pressuretrol, which controls when the boiler fires to keep up pressure, and for boilers equipped with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which controls the amount of fire. Security valve: It is utilized to relieve pressure and stop possible explosion of the boiler. Water level indications: They show the operator the amount of liquid in the boiler, known as a view cup also, water measure or water column. Bottom level blowdown valves: They provide a way for removing solid particulates that condense and lay on underneath of the boiler. As the name indicates, this valve is usually located directly on underneath of the boiler, and is occasionally opened up to use the pressure in the boiler to drive these particulates out. Continuous blowdown valve: This allows a small quantity of water to flee continuously. Its purpose is to prevent the water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would business lead to foaming and cause drinking water droplets to be carried over with the vapor - an ailment known as priming. Blowdown is often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler water also. Trycock: a kind of valve that is often use to manually check a liquid level in a tank. Most entirely on a drinking water boiler commonly. Flash tank: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where in fact the steam can 'flash' safely and be found in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere while the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain. Automatic blowdown/continuous heat recovery system: This system allows the boiler to blowdown only when make-up water is moving to the boiler, thereby transferring the utmost amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the make-up water. No flash container is normally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the temperature of the makeup water. Hand holes: They are metal plates installed in openings in "header" to permit for inspections & installing tubes and inspection of inner surfaces. Vapor drum internals, some display, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators). Low-water cutoff: It is a mechanical means (usually a float switch) that is used to turn from the burner or shut down gasoline to the boiler to prevent it from running once the water moves below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burnt without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failing. Surface blowdown line: It offers a means for removing foam or other light-weight non-condensible substances that have a tendency to float on top of the water inside the boiler. Circulating pump: It is designed to circulate water back to the boiler after they have expelled some of its heat. Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater series. This may be fitted to the side of the boiler, just below water level, or to the very best of the boiler.[10] Top feed: In this design for feedwater injection, water is fed to the very best of the boiler. This can reduce boiler fatigue caused by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over a series of trays the water is quickly warmed and this can reduce limescale. Desuperheater pipes or bundles: Some tubes or bundles of pipes in the water drum or the vapor drum designed to cool superheated vapor, in order to provide auxiliary equipment that will not need, or may be damaged by, dry steam. Chemical injection line: A connection to add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH. Steam accessories Main steam stop valve: Steam traps: Main steam stop/check valve: It can be used on multiple boiler installations. Combustion accessories Fuel oil system:gasoline oil heaters Gas system: Coal system: Soot blower Other essential items Pressure gauges: Feed pumps: Fusible plug: Inspectors test pressure measure attachment: Name plate: Registration dish:

  14. Jamesvef

    A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other liquid is heated. The fluid will not boil. (In THE UNITED STATES, the term "furnace" is generally used if the purpose is not to boil the liquid.) The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in a variety of heating system or procedures applications,[1][2] including water heating, central heating system, boiler-based power era, cooking food, and sanitation. Materials The pressure vessel of the boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or of wrought iron historically. Stainless steel, especially of the austenitic types, is not used in wetted parts of boilers due to stress and corrosion corrosion cracking.[3] However, ferritic stainless steel is often found in superheater sections that will not be exposed to boiling drinking water, and electrically heated stainless shell boilers are allowed under the Western "Pressure Equipment Directive" for creation of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4] [url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler[/url] In live steam models, copper or brass is often used since it is more easily fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (especially for vapor locomotives), due to its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in newer times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as steel) are used instead. For a lot of the Victorian "age group of vapor", the only material used for boilermaking was the best quality of wrought iron, with set up by rivetting. This iron was often extracted from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), observed for the high quality of their rolled plate and its own suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice instead relocated towards the use of metal, which is more powerful and cheaper, with welded structure, which is quicker and requires less labour. It ought to be noted, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode significantly slower than their modern-day metal counterparts, and are less susceptible to localized stress-corrosion and pitting. This makes the durability of old wrought-iron boilers considerably superior to those of welded metal boilers. Cast iron can be utilized for the heating vessel of domestic water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in a few countries, their purpose is usually to produce hot water, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and try to avoid boiling. The brittleness of cast iron makes it impractical for high-pressure vapor boilers. Boiler Repairs Woolwich, SE18, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service [url=http://boiler-repairs-woolwich.co.uk]Boiler Repairs Woolwich, SE18, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service>>>[/url] Energy The foundation of heating for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or gas. Electric steam boilers use level of resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is utilized as a heat source for generating steam also, either straight (BWR) or, in most cases, in specialised temperature exchangers called "vapor generators" (PWR). Warmth recovery vapor generators (HRSGs) use the heat rejected from other procedures such as gas turbine. Boiler efficiency there are two solutions to gauge the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method Immediate method -immediate method of boiler efficiency test is more functional or more common boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total vapor stream Hg= Enthalpy of saturated steam in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of give food to water in kcal/kg q= level of fuel use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like pet coke (8200 kcal/KG) indirect method -to gauge the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we need a following parameter like Ultimate analysis of gasoline (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint) percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas flue gas temperature at outlet ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg GCV of fuel in kcal/kg ash percentage in combustible fuel GCV of ash in kcal/kg Configurations Boilers can be classified in to the following configurations: Container boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" in which a fireplace heats a partially filled water container from below. 18th century Haycock boilers produced and stored large quantities of very low-pressure vapor generally, often barely above that of the atmosphere. These could burn off wood or most often, coal. Efficiency was suprisingly low. Flued boiler with one or two large flues-an early forerunner or type of fire-tube boiler. Diagram of the fire-tube boiler Fire-tube boiler: Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume remaining above to accommodate the steam (steam space). This is the kind of boiler used in all steam locomotives nearly. Heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be kept completely surrounded by water in order to keep the temperature of the heating system surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of the fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which can be further increased by causing the gases invert direction through another parallel tube or a bundle of multiple pipes (two-pass or return flue boiler); alternatively the gases may be taken along the sides and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel stretches from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a bundle of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly increases the heating surface in comparison to a single tube and further improves heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers will often have a comparatively low rate of steam creation, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers burn off solid fuels mainly, but are readily adaptable to people of the gas or water variety. Diagram of a water-tube boiler. Water-tube boiler: In this type, tubes filled up with drinking water are arranged inside a furnace in a number of possible configurations. The water pipes connect large drums Often, the lower ones including water and the upper ones vapor and drinking water; in other cases, such as a mono-tube boiler, water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This kind generally provides high vapor creation rates, but less storage capacity than the above. Water pipe boilers can be designed to exploit any high temperature source and are generally preferred in high-pressure applications because the high-pressure water/vapor is contained within small diameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall structure. Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized kind of water-tube boiler in which pipes are close jointly and drinking water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube steam generator in which the tube is permanently filled with water. Super fast boiler, the pipe is kept so hot that the water feed is quickly flashed into vapor and superheated. Flash boilers had some use in automobiles in the 19th century which use continued into the early 20th century. . 1950s design steam locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes both above types have been mixed in the next manner: the firebox includes an set up of water pipes, called thermic siphons. The gases then go through a conventional firetube boiler. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed] but have fulfilled with little success far away. Sectional boiler. Inside a cast iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is contained inside solid iron sections.[citation needed] These sections are assembled on site to produce the finished boiler. Safety See also: Boiler explosion To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Culture of Mechanical Technicians (ASME) develop standards and regulation rules. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a typical providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with security, security and design standards.[5] Historically, boilers were a way to obtain many serious injuries and property destruction due to badly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metallic shells can rupture, while welded or riveted seams could open up badly, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized vapor. When drinking water is converted to steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original travels and volume down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres each hour. Because of this, steam is a superb way of moving energy and high temperature around a site from a central boiler house to where it is necessary, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising seed will suffer from scale development and corrosion. At best, this increases energy costs and can result in poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation. At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failing and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also aerosol scalding-hot vapor and smoke from the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who insert the coal in to the fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories could demolish entire structures.[6] A boiler that has a loss of give food to drinking water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous. If nourish water is then sent into the unfilled boiler, the tiny cascade of incoming water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that can't be managed even by safety steam valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the vapor source lines that is larger than the make-up drinking water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was developed in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and INSURANCE PROVIDER as a method to assist in preventing this problem from happening, and therefore reduce their insurance statements.[7][8] Superheated steam boiler A superheated boiler on a steam locomotive. Main article: Superheater Most boilers produce steam to be used at saturation heat; that is, saturated vapor. Superheated steam boilers vaporize water and further heat up the steam in a superheater then. This provides steam at much higher temperature, but can reduce the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating place because the higher steam heat takes a higher flue gas exhaust temperature.[citation needed] There are many ways to circumvent this problem, typically by providing an economizer that heats the give food to drinking water, a combustion air heating unit in the hot flue gas exhaust route, or both. You will find advantages to superheated vapor that may, and often will, increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its own utilization: benefits in input heat to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler problem and expense. There may be useful restrictions in using moist vapor also, as entrained condensation droplets will harm turbine blades. Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any operational system component fails and allows steam to escape, the high temperature and pressure can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will at first be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak indicates its existence clearly. Superheater operation is similar to that of the coils on an air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas path in the boiler furnace. The heat in this area is typically between 1,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb temperature by rays. Others are convection type, absorbing temperature from a liquid. Some are a combination of both types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas path will heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within also. While the temp of the steam in the superheater increases, the pressure of the steam will not and the pressure remains exactly like that of the boiler.[9] Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to prevent damage to the turbine blading and associated piping. Supercritical steam generator Boiler for a charged power herb. Main article: Supercritical steam generator Supercritical steam generators are frequently used for the production of energy. They operate at supercritical pressure. As opposed to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical vapor generator operates at such a higher pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases to occur; the fluid is neither liquid nor gas but a super-critical fluid. There is no era of steam bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point at which steam bubbles can form. As the liquid expands through the turbine levels, its thermodynamic condition drops below the critical point as it does work turning the turbine which changes the electrical generator that power is eventually extracted. The liquid at that point may be a mixture of vapor and liquid droplets as it passes into the condenser. This leads to slightly less fuel use and for that reason less greenhouse gas creation. The term "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure vapor generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this device. Boiler Repairs Woolwich, SE18, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service [url=http://boiler-repairs-woolwich.co.uk]Boiler Repairs Woolwich, SE18, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service...[/url] Accessories Boiler accessories and fittings Pressuretrols to control the steam pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have 2 or 3 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a protection by setting the top limit of steam pressure, the operating pressuretrol, which handles when the boiler fires to keep pressure, as well as for boilers outfitted with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which settings the quantity of fire. Security valve: It is utilized to relieve pressure and stop possible explosion of a boiler. Water level indicators: They show the operator the level of liquid in the boiler, known as a view cup also, water gauge or drinking water column. Bottom blowdown valves: They provide a way for removing solid particulates that condense and lie on the bottom of a boiler. As the name implies, this valve is located directly on underneath of the boiler usually, and is occasionally opened to use the pressure in the boiler to force these particulates out. Constant blowdown valve: This enables a small quantity of water to flee continuously. Its purpose is to prevent water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would business lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be carried over with the steam - a condition known as priming. Blowdown is also often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler drinking water. Trycock: a type of valve that is often use to manually check a water level in a container. Most entirely on a water boiler commonly. Flash tank: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where the steam can 'flash' safely and become used in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere as the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain. Automatic blowdown/constant heat recovery system: This system allows the boiler to blowdown only when make-up water is flowing to the boiler, thereby transferring the utmost amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the makeup water. No flash container is generally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the heat of the makeup water. Hand openings: These are metal plates installed in openings in "header" to permit for inspections & installation of tubes and inspection of internal surfaces. Steam drum internals, some display, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators). Low-water cutoff: It is a mechanical means (usually a float change) that is utilized to turn from the burner or shut down fuel to the boiler to prevent it from running once the water moves below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burnt without drinking water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failing. Surface blowdown series: It offers a way for removing foam or other lightweight non-condensible substances that have a tendency to float together with water inside the boiler. Circulating pump: It really is designed to circulate water back to the boiler after it has expelled some of its heat. Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater series. This can be suited to the comparative side of the boiler, just below water level, or to the top of the boiler.[10] Top feed: In this design for feedwater injection, the water is fed to the top of the boiler. This may reduce boiler fatigue caused by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over a series of trays the water is quickly heated which can reduce limescale. Desuperheater tubes or bundles: A series of pipes or bundles of tubes in the water drum or the vapor drum designed to cool superheated vapor, in order to provide auxiliary equipment that does not need, or may be damaged by, dry steam. Chemical injection line: A link with add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH. Steam accessories Main steam stop valve: Steam traps: Main steam stop/check valve: It is used on multiple boiler installations. Combustion accessories Gas oil system:energy oil heaters Gas system: Coal system: Soot blower Other essential items Pressure gauges: Feed pumps: Fusible plug: Inspectors test pressure measure attachment: Name plate: Registration dish:

  15. Michaeljoync

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  16. DavidSmard

    [url=http://bit.ly/2DcnvlN]Here you can buy almost all Altcoins, one of the best Exchanges[/url] =$=